Appendix 2 Glossary


  • In the case of community facilities and services (such as healthcare), easy to travel to or use. With reference to buildings or public transport, easy to enter and use by all.

Active travel

Affordable housing

  • Housing provided for sale or rent at prices below the current market rate, which people in housing need can afford.  Affordable housing tenures are defined in Government guidance, as set out in Annex 2 of the National Planning Policy Framework.

Air Quality Management Area (AQMA)

  • A place where the National Air Quality Objectives are not being met.  Once an AQMA has been declared the authority has to carry out further work to monitor the air quality in the area and identify what actions can be taken to improve it.


  • Land which has been identified for a specific use in the current development plan.

Appropriate Assessment

  • Analysis of the impact of plans and strategies on areas of designated European environmental importance such as Special Protection Areas, Special Areas of Conservation and Ramsar sites.

Area Action Plan (AAP)

  • A development plan document within the local plan that establishes a set of development proposals and policies for a specific area. In Greater Norwich there are current adopted area actions plans for the North East Growth Triangle, Long Stratton, and Wymondham.


  • The variety of different types of plant and animal life in a region.

Biodiversity net gain

  • Refers to development having a positive impact on biodiversity, leaving it in a better state than before development occurred.

Brownfield land, brownfield site

  • Land or site that has been subject to previous development.

Brownfield Register

  • Brownfield land registers provide up-to-date information about sites that local authorities consider to be appropriate for residential development having regard to the relevant legislation.

Building for a Healthy Life

  • A government-endorsed industry standard for well-designed homes and neighbourhoods. Local communities, local authorities and developers are encouraged to use it to guide discussions about creating good places to live. The National Planning Policy Framework encourages its use in local plans.

Built environment

  • The man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter to neighbourhoods to large-scale civic surroundings.

Business use

  • Land use class covering light industry, offices, research and development.

Cambridge Norwich Tech Corridor

  • A public-private partnership spanning Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire set up to deliver high-value economic and societal growth in clusters between Cambridge and Norwich within the technology/science sector.

City centre

  • The main commercial area of Norwich that is predominantly within the Inner Ring Road (A147). The exact boundary is shown on map 9 of the local plan.

Clean Growth

  • Clean growth means growing our income while cutting greenhouse gas emissions. It is promoted nationally by the Government’s Clean Growth Strategy and locally in the emerging Local Industrial Strategy.

Climate Change Mitigation

  • Actions taken to limit the magnitude or rate of global warming and its associated effects, usually involving a reduction in human emissions of greenhouse gases.


  • Development proposals which already have planning permission or are allocated in adopted development plans.

Community facilities

  • Services that meet the day-to-day needs of a community such as village halls, post offices, doctors’ and dentists’ surgeries, play areas, recycling facilities, libraries and places of worship.

Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL)

  • A financial charge on new development introduced by the Planning Act 2008 as a tool for local authorities to help deliver infrastructure to support growth and development in their area. 

Conservation area

  • Area of special historic and/or architectural interest which is designated by the local planning authority as being important to conserve and enhance. Special planning controls apply within these areas.

Core Bus Routes

  • A network of main bus routes where service frequency and bus priority will be enhanced.

County Wildlife Site (CWS)

  • Wildlife habitat identified and designated as being of local interest or importance by Norfolk County Council and the Norfolk Wildlife Trust, but which is not of enough national merit to be declared as a Site of Special Scientific Interest. A CWS does not benefit from statutory protection but does have some protection in the planning system.

Custom-build housing (see also self-build housing)

  • A form of self-build home that is, in some form, supported by a developer through a more hands-off approach than traditional self-build would entail.

Decentralised and renewable or low-carbon energy sources

  • Sources of energy that are renewable or low-carbon (or a combination of these) and locally based (on-site or near-site, but not remote off-site), usually on a relatively small scale. Decentralised energy is a broad term used to denote a diverse range of technologies, including micro-renewables, which can locally serve an individual building, development or wider community and includes heating and cooling energy.


  • Defined in planning law as ‘the carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other operations in, on, over, or under land, or the making of a material change of use of any building or land’.

Development Plan

  • A set of plans guiding future development in the area. The development plan consists of the locally prepared development plan documents, including Neighbourhood Plans approved at referendum.

Development Plan Document

  • Locally prepared document on a specific topic which forms part of the development plan and which subject to independent examination before adoption, also commonly referred to as DPDs.

District centre

  • A group of shops separate from the town centre containing at least one supermarket or superstore as well as other services.  District centres provide for a catchment extending beyond the immediate locality.

Economic Strategy for Norfolk and Suffolk (ESNS)

  • A shared strategy between businesses, education providers, local councils and voluntary and community sector, which is led by New Anglia LEP outlining future growth across the region.

Employment use

  • Use primarily for industrial, warehousing, office or other business uses falling within classes B1, B2 and B8 of the use classes order.

Five-year housing land supply

  • A requirement by Government for local planning authorities to ensure that there is enough land available that is suitable, available and deliverable for housing development.  The amount of land available should be enough to fulfil the housing requirement for the next five years.

Food Enterprise Park

  • 46 acres of commercial development land with planning available for food related businesses near Easton and Honingham. A Local Development Order (LDO) is in place for part of the site.


  • The variety of different types of geology, landforms, soils and physical processes in a region.

Greater Norwich City Deal

  • An agreement between Government and Greater Norwich, which provides the city and surrounding areas certain powers and freedoms to take responsibility for decisions that affect Greater Norwich. It is implemented by the Greater Norwich Growth Board (GNGB).

Greater Norwich Growth Board (GNGB)

  • A partnership between Broadland District Council, Norwich City Council, South Norfolk Council, Norfolk County Council and New Anglia Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) to provide homes, jobs and infrastructure. It also provides strategic direction, monitoring and co-ordination of the Greater Norwich City Deal.

Greater Norwich Local Plan Infrastructure Report (GNLPIR)

  • A supporting document to the GNLP focusing on transport, utilities, education, health care, fire and rescue, community facilities, sport and leisure facilities, green infrastructure and waste management.

Green infrastructure

  • A network of multi-functional green space which delivers benefits to both the environment and the local community.  Green infrastructure includes natural green spaces colonised by plants and animals and man-made managed green spaces such as areas used for outdoor sport and recreation including public and private open space.  These spaces may include allotments, urban parks and designed historic landscapes as well as their many interconnections such as footpaths, cycleways, green corridors and waterways.

Greenfield land (or site)

  • Land which has not previously been built on, including land in use for agriculture or forestry. Greenfield land does not include residential garden land.

Growth Triangle

  • An area to the north-east of Norwich identified for major growth.

Habitat Regulations Assessment (HRA)

  • An HRA identifies any aspect of the emerging Local Plan that would have the potential to cause a likely significant effect on Natura 2000 sites or sites protected by European designations (Special Areas of Conservation, Special Protection Areas, Ramsar sites) either in isolation or cumulatively, and to identify appropriate avoidance and mitigation strategies where impacts are identified.

Health Impact Assessment

  • An assessment required for large sites and for any housing proposal with a significant amount of housing for the elderly to show how the health care infrastructure needs of the new development are provided for.

Heritage Asset

  • A building, monument, site, place, area or landscape with historic interest that provides a material record of history or meaning for a community.  Heritage assets may be either ‘designated’ or ‘non-designated’ and have a degree of significance that merits consideration in planning decisions.

Historic environment

  • Aspects of the environment which result from the interactions between people and places through time. 

Inclusive Growth

  • Economic growth that is distributed fairly across society and creates opportunities for all.

Index of Multiple Deprivation

  • A ward-level index made up from six indicators (income; employment; health deprivation and disability; education; skills and training; housing; and geographical access to services)

Infill development

  • Small-scale development filling a gap within an otherwise built up area.


  • The network of services to which it is usual for most buildings or activities to be connected. Infrastructure includes physical services serving the development (e.g. gas, electricity and water supply; telephones, sewerage) and includes networks of roads, public transport routes, footpaths etc as well as community facilities and green infrastructure.

Joint Core Strategy (JCS)

  • A key planning policy document for the Greater Norwich Area produced in partnership between Broadland, Norwich and South Norfolk that sets out the long-term vision for the area up until 2026. The JCS has a considerable impact on the Greater Norwich Local Plan (GNLP) which in turn determines growth up until 2038 and will supersede the JCS when adopted.

Key Service Centres

  • Key service centres are the third tier in the settlement hierarchy. The Key service centres are Acle, Blofield, Brundall, Hethersett, Hingham, Loddon/Chedgrave, Poringland/Framingham Earl, Reepham and Wroxham. They have a good range of services, typically: a primary school; a secondary school either in or accessible from the settlement; a range of shops and services (including convenience shopping but more limited than in main towns); a village hall; primary health care and a library.

Knowledge economy

  • The production, distribution, and use of knowledge as the main driver of growth, wealth creation, and employment across all industries. It does not rely solely on a few advanced technology industries but is applicable to traditional industries, such as manufacturing and agriculture.

Knowledge-intensive jobs

  • A knowledge-intensive job is one where the workers need a lot of education, skills and experience to work effectively. In Greater Norwich these mainly include jobs in: research in the food, health and life sciences sectors; agri-tech; advanced manufacturing and engineering; IT and communications and digital creative industries.

Local Nature Reserve (LNR)

  • Area of botanical or wildlife interest where access and use by local people is encouraged through designation by the local authority.

Local centre

  • A group of shops or services forming a centre of purely local significance. See city centre and district centre.

Local housing need

  • An assessment of the need for housing at a local level over a period of time using the standard methodology set out by the Government.

Local Transport Plan

  • A five-year integrated transport strategy, prepared by local authorities in partnership with the community, seeking funding to help provide local transport projects. The plan sets out the resources predicted for delivery of the targets identified in the strategy.

London-Stansted-Cambridge Corridor and the Cambridge-Milton Keynes-Oxford Arc (CaMkOx)

  • These are two different growth corridors of vital economic importance to the UK that host a highly skilled labour force, cutting edge research facilities and technology clusters that can compete on a global scale which are supported by two world-class universities.

Low carbon

  • Minimisation of carbon dioxide emissions from a human activity.

Main Towns

  • Main towns are the second tier in the settlement hierarchy. The main towns are Aylsham, Diss (with part of Roydon), Harleston, Long Stratton and Wymondham. They are engines of rural growth, providing employment and services for wider hinterlands.

Major development

  • For housing, development where 10 or more dwellings are to be provided or the site has an area of 0.5 hectares or more.  For non-residential development, it means additional floorspace of 1,000m2 or more or a site of 1 hectare or more.

Major Road Network

  • A classification of major local authority roads in England to help reduce congestion, support economic growth and rebalancing, support housing delivery, support all road users and support the Strategic Road Network (SRN). In Greater Norwich these are the A140 (including the A1270) and the A146. 

Market Housing

  • Housing that is for sale on the open market without restrictions on pricing or tenure.

Market Town Network Improvement Strategies

  • A Norfolk County Council initiative to implement studies into the transport impacts of growth in market towns that help to identify and plan interventions ahead of any planned growth.


  • A long-term planning document that provides a conceptual framework to guide future growth and development, usually on large sites.

Modal shift

  • An increase in the proportion of people travelling by different forms of transport. It is usually used in relation to measures to encourage public transport use and cycling and walking.

National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF)

  • A document which sets out the Government’s economic, environmental and social planning policies for England and how they should be applied. It provides a baseline structure from which locally prepared plans (such as the GNLP) can be produced and it is a material consideration in planning decisions.

National Planning Practice Guidance (NPPG)

  • A web-based resource which brings together planning guidance on various topics into one easily accessible place.  The guidance supports the NPPF but is not Government policy. 

Natural Capital

  • The elements of nature that directly or indirectly produce value to people, including ecosystems, species, fresh water, land, minerals, the air and oceans, as well as natural processes and functions. Natural capital includes many different components of the living and non-living natural environment, as well as the processes and functions that link these components and sustain life. Natural capital is often referred to in terms of Natural Assets.

Natural Asset

  • A distinctive component of natural capital as determined by the functions it performs, e.g. soils, fresh water and species. Assets are not mutually exclusive and there is overlap between categories (for example, soils include species, minerals, and water).

Neighbourhood Plan

  • A plan prepared by a parish/town council or neighbourhood forum for a designated neighbourhood area.  Once made by the local planning authority it becomes part of the development plan for the area.

New Anglia Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP)

  • An organisation of private and public-sector representatives working with businesses, local authority partners and education institutions to drive growth and enterprise in Norfolk and Suffolk.

Non-strategic policies

  • Policies contained in a Neighbourhood Plan, or those policies in a local plan that are identified as non-strategic policies.

Norfolk and Suffolk Local Industrial Strategy

  • An emerging strategy building upon the Economic Strategy for Norfolk and Suffolk which will consider in greater detail the competitive strengths of the regions and focus on the clean energy, agri-food and ICT/ digital sectors.

Norfolk Strategic Planning Framework (NSPF)

  • A policy document which brings together Norfolk’s Local Planning Authorities to create a framework that all local authorities formally use to meet shared objectives on a range of strategic cross-boundary planning issues.

Northern Distributor Road (NDR)

  • A dual-carriageway road (also known as the A1270 Broadland Northway) completed in 2019 to the north of Norwich, linking the A47 to the south-east of the city with the A1067 in the north-west.

Norwich Area Transportation Strategy (NATS)

  • Statement of strategic transportation policy for Norwich and surrounding area, most recently adopted in 2004.

Norwich fringe

  • The area next to the city of Norwich but lying in Broadland and South Norfolk districts which is predominantly developed, including open spaces encompassed within the developed area. The Norwich fringe is the built-up parts of the fringe parishes of Colney, Costessey, Cringleford, Drayton, Easton, Hellesdon, Old Catton, Sprowston, Taverham, Thorpe St. Andrew, Trowse and the remainder of the Growth Triangle including Rackheath.

Norwich Research Park

  • A major research park that is a leading centre for science and technology as well as food and health.

Norwich urban area

  • The City of Norwich and the Norwich fringe (see above). This is the first tier in the settlement hierarchy. It has both high level and a broad range of employment and services providing for Greater Norwich.

Open Space

  • Areas of land that usually come forward as part of a development site which remain undeveloped but can generally be used for either formal or informal recreation purposes.

Park and Ride

  • Parking areas at the edge of the built-up area and linked by frequent bus (or other public transport) services to the city centre.

Planning conditions

  • A condition imposed on a planning permission which can either require additional details to be agreed or restrict the use of the site.

Planning obligations

  • Legal agreements between a planning authority and a developer, or undertakings offered unilaterally by a developer to ensure that specific works are carried out, payments made, or other actions undertaken which would otherwise be outside the scope of the planning permission. Often called Section 106 obligations. The term legal agreements may embrace S106.

Post-carbon Economy

  • An economy in which greenhouse gas emissions are low and falling. In Greater Norwich the focus will be on three low carbon, high growth economic sectors: clean energy, agri-food and ICT/digital. 

Previously developed land

  • See Brownfield land.

Primary Shopping Area

  • A defined area in which retail development is concentrated

Protected species

  • Any species which, because of its rarity or threatened status, is protected by statutory legislation (The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended) and the Conservation (Natural Habitats etc) Regulations 1994).

Ramsar site

  • A European designation that protects areas of wetland.

Recreational Impact Avoidance and Mitigation Strategy (RAMS)

  • A strategy facilitating residential development, whilst at the same time adequately protecting wildlife sites from harm that comes with growth in rural areas from increased recreation pressure.

Renewable energy

  • Energy generated from sources which are non-finite or can be replenished. Includes solar power, wind energy, power generated from waste, biomass, hydrogen etc.

Scheduled Ancient Monument

  • Ancient structure, usually unoccupied, above or below the ground, which is preserved by order of the Secretary of State. Works affecting an ancient monument must be approved by the Secretary of State.

Section 106 Agreement (S106)

  • See planning obligations

Self-build housing and custom-build housing

  • Housing built by an individual, a group of individuals, or persons working with or for them, to be occupied by that individual. Such housing can be either market or affordable housing.

Semi-islanded (energy supply)

  • A semi-islanded development site is connected to the wider electricity network but uses on-site generation or storage to reduce the site’s reliance on imported electricity and reduce peak demands.

Settlement Hierarchy

  • A way of arranging settlements into a hierarchy based upon several criteria, such as population and services offered.

Settlement limit, settlement boundary

  • These are areas within which development appropriate to the settlement in question will usually be permitted. Sometimes called village envelopes or development boundaries. They are set out in Development Management plans.

Site Allocation DPD

  • A document used to identify sites to accommodate the range of land uses necessary to implement the objectives of the local plan. Broadland adopted a site allocations document in 2016, Norwich in 2014, and South Norfolk in 2015. The GNLP will carry forward deliverable undeveloped allocations from these plans.

Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

  • Site or area designated as being of national importance because of its wildlife, plants or flower species and/or unusual or typical geological features. SSSIs are identified by Natural England and have protected status under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.

Social Sustainability

  • The ability of a community to not only meet the needs of its current members but also support the ability of future generations to maintain a healthy and liveable community, including supporting local services and providing affordable homes (as highlighted in the Taylor Review “Living Working Countryside, 2008”).

Spatial profile

  • A section in the local plan that provides context about the local area from social, economic and environmental perspectives. It describes the area, how it functions and highlights the key issues to be addressed.

Special Area of Conservation (SAC)

  • Special Areas of Conservation are defined in the European Union’s Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC), also known as the Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora. They are defined to protect the 220 habitats and approximately 1,000 species listed in Annex I and II of the Directive which are of European interest following criteria given in the Directive.

Special Protection Areas (SPAs)

  • Special Protection Areas are strictly protected sites classified in accordance with Article 4 of the EC Birds Directive, which was amended in 2009 (Directive 2009/147/EC). They are classified for rare and vulnerable birds (as listed on Annex I of the Directive), and for regularly occurring migratory species. 

Strategic policies

  • Policies and site allocations which address strategic priorities in line with Section 19 of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004.

Strategic urban extensions / strategic housing growth locations

  • These locations will each provide over 1,000 new homes from 2018 to 2038

Suitable Alternative Natural Green Space (SANGS)

  • A name given to green space that is of a quality and type suitable to be used as mitigation in relation to the protection of important natural spaces when residential development or growth is proposed.

Supplementary Planning Document (SPD)

  • Guidance published by the local planning authorities to provide further detailed information on how local plan policies are to be applied or interpreted. SPDs may be prepared jointly, particularly where a consistent policy approach is required over an area covered by more than one local planning authority. SPDs may be concerned with an issue or may provide more detailed guidance of the development of a specific site, covering a whole range of issues. This is frequently referred to as a development brief.

Sustainability Appraisal (SA)

  • An appraisal of the economic, environmental and social effects of a plan from the outset of the preparation process to allow decisions to be made that accord with sustainable development.

Sustainable development

  • A term mostly derived from the 1987 Brundtland Report. Interpretation varies but typically the term means meeting economic and social goals without undermining the environment, as well as meeting needs of the present without compromising the environment for future generations. In 2015 the United Nations agreed 17 Sustainable Development Goals to be reached by 2030. The UK is amongst the countries leading the delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Sustainable drainage system (SuDS)

  • Efficient drainage system which seeks to minimise wastage of water, including the use of appropriate groundcover to enable maximum penetration of clean water run-off into the ground and, where appropriate, recycling grey water within the development. Designed to minimise the impact of development on the natural water environment.

Transforming Cities

  • A term used to denote the aim of Government policy to improve productivity and spread prosperity through investment in public and sustainable transport.

Transport for Norwich

  • A programme of work to improve accessibility by all forms of transport around Norwich and the surrounding area. It aims to encourage the use of more sustainable modes of transport, while also improving the capacity of the road network and stabilise traffic levels. Transport for Norwich was formerly known as the Norwich Area Transport Strategy.

Travel to work public transport

  • Typically, this will be a regular bus service operating between 07:00 and 19:00 with a thirty-minute frequency of service and a journey time of not more than 30-40 minutes to Norwich or another recognised employment location.


  • Increased density of housing, most commonly on a previously allocated site.

Village cluster

  • This is the fourth level in the settlement hierarchy. Clusters consist of a group of villages that share services and facilities, for example a primary school.

Water stress

  • Water stress occurs when the demand for water exceeds the available amount of water, or when poor water quality restricts its use. Greater Norwich and the wider region are defined by the Environment Agency as a water stressed area.

Western Link

  • The proposed development of a road to connect the Broadland Northway or Northern Distributor Road (NDR) from the A1067 to the A47 west of Norwich.

Windfall site

  • Site on which planning permission for housing development is granted during the plan period, but which has not previously been identified in a plan for housing development.